State of Berin
| Most Serene State of Berin |
Serenísimo Estado del Berin (es)
Hecha de centenares de flores
(Spanish: "Made of hundreds of flowers")
Sobre el joven Berin (National)
Himno real (Royal and national)
Venezuelan Mérida state
|Capital city||(and largest city) |
|Official language(s)||Spanish, |
|Official religion(s)||Berinese Orthodox Church (Evangelicanism) (de facto) |
|Government||Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy|
|- King||Richard Garrshire|
|- President||Juan de Arimatea|
|- President of the National Council||Isaac Manzoeri|
|- Type||- Unicameral|
|Established||6 June 2011|
|Area claimed||11299 km2|
|Currency||Lyre (₰)  |
Bolívar (Bs.F.) 
|National animal||Green Violetear (Colibri thalassinus)|
|Member of the OAM, USAM and OMAP|
Berin officially the Most Serene State of Berin (in Spanish: Serenísimo Estado del Berin) or just State of Berin (in Spanish: Estado del Berin) (pronounced [βeɾin]) was a South American micronation founded in June 6 of 2011 in the Venezuelan Mérida State, that was succeded by the Republic of Berin
Spain's colonization of mainland Venezuela started in 1522, establishing its first permanent South American settlement in the city of Cumaná. The 16th century also saw fitful attempts at German colonization. Native caciques (leaders) such as Guacaipuro (c. 1530–1568) and Tamanaco (died 1573) attempted to resist Spanish incursions, but the newcomers ultimately subdued them; Tamanaco was put to death by order of Caracas' founder Diego de Losada. In the 16th century, during the Spanish colonization, indigenous peoples such as many of the Mariches, themselves descendants of the Caribs rejected paganism and embraced Roman Catholicism. Some of the resisting tribes or leaders are commemorated in place names, including Caracas, Chacao, and Los Teques. The early colonial settlements focussed on the northern coast, but in the mid-18th century the Spanish pushed further inland along the Orinoco River. Here the Ye'kuana (then known as the Makiritare) organised serious resistance in 1775 and 1776.
After a series of unsuccessful uprisings, Venezuela—under the leadership of Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan marshal who had fought in the American Revolution and the French Revolution—declared independence on 5 July 1811. This began the Venezuelan War of Independence. However, a devastating earthquake that struck Caracas in 1812, together with the rebellion of the Venezuelan llaneros, helped bring down the first Venezuelan republic. A second Venezuelan republic, proclaimed on 7 August 1813, lasted several months before being crushed as well.
Sovereignty was only attained after Simón Bolívar, aided by José Antonio Páez and Antonio José de Sucre, won the Battle of Carabobo on 24 June 1821. José Prudencio Padilla and Rafael Urdaneta's victory in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo on 24 July 1823, helped seal Venezuelan independence. New Granada's congress gave Bolívar control of the Granadian army; leading it, he liberated several countries and founded Gran Colombia.
Much of Venezuela's 19th century history was characterized by political turmoil and dictatorial rule, including Independence leader José Antonio Páez, who gained the presidency three times and served a total of eleven years between 1830 and 1863. This culminated in the Federal War (1859–1863), a civil war in which hundreds of thousands died, in a country with a population of not much more than a million people. In the latter half of the century Antonio Guzmán Blanco, another caudillo, served a total of thirteen years between 1870 and 1887, with three other presidents interspersed.
In 1895 a longstanding dispute with Great Britain about the territory of Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory, erupted into the Venezuela Crisis of 1895. The dispute became a diplomatic crisis when Venezuela's lobbyist William L. Scruggs sought to argue that British behaviour over the issue violated the United States' Monroe Doctrine of 1823, and used his influence in Washington, D.C. to pursue the matter. Then US President Grover Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the Doctrine that did not just simply forbid new European colonies but declared an American interest in any matter within the hemisphere. Britain ultimately accepted arbitration, but in negotiations over its terms was able to persuade the US on much of the details. A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the issue, and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.
Democratic Period (1958-present)
The military dictator Pérez Jiménez was forced out on 23 January 1958. In an effort to consolidate the young democracy, the major political parties (with the notable exception of the Communist Party of Venezuela) signed the Punto Fijo Pact. Democratic Action and COPEI would dominate the political landscape for four decades. The 1960s saw substantial guerilla movements, including the Armed Forces of National Liberation and the Revolutionary Left Movement, which had split from Democratic Action in 1960. Most of these movements lay down their arms under Rafael Caldera's presidency (1969–73); Caldera had won the 1968 election for COPEI]], being the first time a party other than Democratic Action took the presidency through a democratic election.
The election of Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1973 coincided with the 1973 oil crisis which saw Venezuela's income explode as oil prices soared. This led to massive increases in public spending, but also increases in external debts, which continued into the 1980s when the collapse of oil prices during the 1980s crippled the Venezuelan economy. As the government started to devalue the currency in February 1983 in order to face its financial obligations, Venezuelans' real standard of living fell dramatically. A number of failed economic policies and increasing corruption in government led to rising poverty and crime, worsening social indicators, and increased political instability. Corruption remains a problem; Venezuela was ranked near the bottom of countries in the Corruptions Perceptions Index in 2009.
In April 2002, Chávez was briefly ousted from power in the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt following popular demonstrations by his opposers, but he was returned to power after two days as a result of popular demonstrations by his supporters and actions by the military. Chávez also remained in power after an all-out national strike that lasted more than two months Venezuelan general strike of 2002–2003 in December 2002 – February 2003, including a strike/lockout in the state oil company PDVSA, and an August 2004 recall referendum. He was elected for another term in December 2006]].
On April 19 of 2011, the Kingdom of Dussekstein's and the Cizlandeese Empire's heads of government signed the Unión Agreement, which officially declared these countries as one, the Holy Dussesh Empire, or simply Dussmark. The King Heinrich I and Empress Iryna I decided to put in the power a member of the Royal Dussesh family, the King Heinrich's first son, William I, but he denied, thus, according to the agreement, if the Dolphin of Dussekstein denies the throne, a member of the Imeprial Cizlandeese Family must be the Emperor. The first monarch was Natalya I, however she renounced the throne, and, as Czea has no monarchy, the power was accepted by the Cizlandeese Duke and Drchduke Richard I of Cizland-Oviedo. Then the Empress of Cizland, Iryna I, oposed and named the Cizlandeese princess Michelle I as the Empress.
The so called Dussesh-Czean War was a period of war between Dussmark and Czea before the President Javier Dalvéz signed the Unión Agreement with Cizland and Dussekstein. The Czean Republic did not wanted to sign the agreement and the president Dalvéz insulted the Cizlandeese Empress Iryna I and Cizland cut all relations with Czea. Two days later, Cizland declared war with Czea and signed the Unión Agreement with Dussekstein, establishing the Dussesh Empire and causing Dussekstein to join the war. The President Dalvéz signed the Unión Agreement and the war ended, after which he was exiled of Dussmark and is now forbidden to contact any member of the Dussesh government, including the Empress, Michelle I, and the other members of the Dussesh Imperial family. At the end, Czea signed the Unión Agreement founding the complete Holy Dussesh Empire.
The May 25 of 2011, two days after the exile of Grand Duke Ricardo I of Luftchen-Vadenburg, the Grand Duke, along with four other people, founded the then called Kingdom of Montblanc and San Joan, a micronation inside the dussesh territory, and Ricardo I sent a letter to the empress Michelle I trying to make an agreement. The empress Michelle I, in Spain, denied any type of agreement with Montblanc and sent a letter back to Ricardo I saying that she will not tolerate any other micronation inside the dussesh territory that he founded. The letter caused a lot of problems, the King and the Empress continued sending letters until the 27th of May, when the two nations decided to make a treaty which established borders between Montblanc and Dussmark. The Kingdom of Montblanc and San Joan claimed the venezuelan states of Mérida, Barinas and Portuguesa. The tate of Mérida, where the montblancqi capital was suposed to be, was the center of the dussmark economy and the Empress was not going to give the land to Montblanc. This upset Ricardo I, who said that "If the Empress lives in Madrid, why is the dussesh capital not in Madrid?" but the Empress still did not want to give up Mérida. After a few hours Ricardo I declared war on Dussmark. The Montblancqi Army forced the dussesh negotiators to surrender and the King threatened the empress to take Atéshograd by force. The empress said to Ricardo I that she would not surrender as her negotiators, so the montblancqui army taked control of the city. The empress threatened to create a government in the exile and to recover Atéshograd with help of the dussesh allies, but then mysteriously she decided to put in the power to her brother, Dánae I. Dánae, close friend to Ricardo, maked peace between the two micronations, so he gave Mérida, Barinas and Portuguesa states as the original treaty aclared. Then, the power returned back to the empress Michelle.
The dussesh state was defeated by the democratic comunity officially the 2 of June of 2011. The democratic leader, Enrique Peverón, declared the 3 of June the Dussesh Republic, a democratic state, that, with Montblanc, would be the successor of the Dussesh Empire. The empress Michelle renounced to the job by herself and postulated to be prime minister, what she is now. The republic will later be the Dussesh Commonwealth, a free asociated state with Berin.
Berin and the Confederation
In June 5, a proposal was presented to the Parliament. The Free Monarchical State of Montblanc and San Joan was going to be changed, again. In June 6 2011, the parliament speaker, Isabel Rojas, announced that officially, Montblanc was going to be the Berinese Confederation, and the Parliament, along with the montblancqi government and legislature, were going to be changed by a divided legislature, based on Ministries. The minister where going to be the parliament members, and after them they were going to be elected. The Berinese Confederation claims now the territory of the Venezuelan state of Mérida.
According to the motion, the name, unrecognized micro and macronations, official name and ministers were going to be elected by the parliament, but recognized micro and macronations, imperial titles, official etymology and national symbols were included in the Motion, called "Moción de Cambio Etimológico-Gubernamental" (spanish: Motion of Etymological-Government change).
The June 17, 2011, the Minister of Animal Protection, Victor H. Rosales with other four people proclaimed independence to Berin creating the Republic of Chipitocoland. Berin gave full recognition.
The term "Confederation" was on use until July 28, 2011, when was replaced by its current name.
In July 2011, the King aproved a new law creating the Berinese National Council, the Unicameral parliament of the Confederation changing the Legislature. The National Council since 10 July of 2011 will take the decitions that the King cannot take just as the President as well.
In July 10, 2011, with the creation of the legislature, a new formal declaration of Independence was created, and taken as the original. The 6 of June of 2011, the Confederation was informally created without any document proving the serious acts taken by the berinese government and in July 2011, the Confederation declared officially its independence from Venezuela.
While most of the people living in the whole Berin are "Criollos", the metropolitan area (San Alejandro) is populated with many other ethnic groups. Venezuelans, Italians, Portuguese and Colombians are inside this group. Many people with African descendency live in the territorial claims of the current Berin. The few "citizens" of Berin are inside the group with Spanish descendecy and Venezuelan indigenous peoples, the most common ethnic group of the Mérida state in which Berin seats and in the whole complete Venezuelan territory.
Government and politics
Berin elected a "Federal Semi-Constitutional Monarchial System" (in Spanish: Sistema de Monarquía Semi-Constitucional Federal). Also, but unofficially, the government can be qualified as unitary, thanks to the power of the PCB on the Government. The legislature was the Berinese National Council, an unicameral parliament of 6 members located in the capital, San Alejandro.
The State of Berin is divided in three Federal Semi-Autonomous Provinces, Buque España, Zea and New Lapáz. These are divided in a total of 23 municipalities.
|150px||Buque España||San Alejandro||150px||None*|
|150px||New Lapáz||Santa María de Caparo||150px||None*|
*:Lead by the current Monarch as a responce to vacancies until governoral elections.
Notes and references
- In the declaration of Independence says so, but it starts with "For the Name of the Pahun"
- One overseas Ambassador
- Berin changes of currency -http://theberinesenews.wordpress.com/2011/07/02/change-of-currency/
- In progress, the lyre is still an attempt of currency (de jure currency)
- De facto currency
- More common name and supported by the consitution
- Gott (2005:203)
- Zakaria, Fareed, From Wealth to Power (1999). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691010358. pp145–146
- R. A. Humphreys (1967), "Anglo-American Rivalries and the Venezuela Crisis of 1895", Presidential Address to the Royal Historical Society 10 December 1966, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 17: pp131-164
- Health and Neoliberalism: Venezuela and Cuba
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2009", Transparency International
- The coup installed chamber of commerce leader Pedro Carmona. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1927678.stm%7Ctitle=Profile: Pedro Carmona
- "Venezuela 2002–2003: Polarisation, Confrontation, and Violence," Margarita López Maya; in Olivia Burlimgame Guombri, ed., The Venezuela Reader. 2005, Washington D.C., U.S.A. Page 16.
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