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|This article contains information pertaining to a fictional micronation, micronationalist or other fictional element of micronational society or culture.|
New Guinea is a micronation located in the unorganized borough of Alaska. With land claims of over 320,000 square miles, 25 square miles of which it has reasonable jurisdiction over, New Guinea is about the same size as the US state of Montana. New Guinea is alternatively viewed as either a 4th world or 5th world micronation. It is the stated goal of the government of New Guinea to ultimately (and peacefully) create an autonomous area in Alaska out of the last section of the United States that is still effectively without a government. This would be akin to the independent Indian nations that exist elsewhere in the U.S. This would not require much doing. The frontier area has already been self-governed since the beginning of time. It is the stated hope of New Guinea only to get official recognition of the systems that are already in place.
There are many countries that have a similar name, such as French Guinea, Dutch Guinea, Papua New Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, and just plain "Guinea", but none of them are called "New Guinea". There is an island bearing the name of "New Guinea" that is host to several different countries, most notably Papua New Guinea. There are no other nations bearing the name of "New Guinea". Like the other Guinea-named-places, New Guinea was so named in the spirit of autonomy and freedom.
The first humans came to the greater Alaskan peninsula about 10,000 years ago, using the Bering land bridge. These people eventually spread throughout the Americas. In 1493, Spain claimed, illegally, the area and soon after, the first explorers from Europe arrived. The area was also later visited by missionaries of the Russian Orthodox Church during the 1740's, which made a huge impact on the culture seen today. In July 1799 Baranov established the settlement of Arkhangelsk. It was destroyed in 1802 but rebuilt nearby in 1804 and given the name Novo-Arkhangelsk (New Archangel). It soon became the primary settlement and colonial capital of Russian America. After the Alaska Purchase, a transaction that ignored the wishes and rights of the people who actually lived in the area, it was renamed Sitka, the first capital of Alaska Territory. The United States flag was raised on October 18, 1867. Coincident with the ownership change, the de facto International Date Line was moved westward, and Alaska changed from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar. Therefore, for residents, Friday, October 6, 1867 was followed by Friday, October 18, 1867—two Fridays in a row because of the date line shift.
During the Department era, from 1867 to 1884, Alaska was variously under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army (until 1877), the United States Department of the Treasury (from 1877 until 1879) and the U.S. Navy (from 1879 until 1884). President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Alaska Statehood Act into United States law on July 7, 1958, which paved the way for Alaska's admission into the Union on January 3, 1959. Juneau, the territorial capital, continued as state capital, and William A. Egan was sworn in as the first governor.
New Guinea roots
Much of New Guinea resides in the "unorganized" borough. Alaska has no counties, as do other states (except for Louisiana which has parishes). Instead, it is divided into 16 boroughs and one "unorganized borough" made up of all land not within any borough. Boroughs have organized area-wide governments, but within the unorganized borough there is no such government, and the self-governed people of all descents have lived in peace, without wars, slavery, or oppression, in the area for over 500 years. The people have not changed their lifestyle in all that time, regardless of the various entities who have "claimed" it at one time or another.
Modern New Guinea
The nation of New Guinea was first conceived by Archangel in 1983, in a series of papers published on the subject, and went through various conceptual stages as a de facto government until land was acquired from the state of Alaska in 2006. In 2007, independence was declared, and no action has been taken by either the United States or the State of Alaska. The activities of New Guinea have been limited almost exclusively to development of 25+ square miles of forest and lakes, including the construction of a dock capable of receiving float-plane and boat traffic. In addition to this, a large effort has been made to mark the routes of future trails and build them. This work is ongoing. Politically, efforts by the ministry of Information to inform residents of Greater New Guinea (Those living in disputed areas) of the existence of New Guinea and offer them citizenship, have been reasonably successful. This work is also ongoing. In 2007, New Guinea became a signor to Mikhail Gorbachev's Convention on the Right to Water. In late May of 2011, New Guinea petitioned the OAM for membership. Also in late May 2011, New Guinea signed the Great Pacific Garbage Patch Treaty. On July 1st, the official website remodel is to be unveiled.
Geography and climate
Total area: 320,000 square miles.
Land area: 290,900 square miles.
Water area: 4,943 square miles
New Guinea is 1.31% water.
(This is about the same size as the entire state of Montana.)
Most of New Guinea is wooded or mountainous, with the land separated by rivers and lakes. New Guinea is also home to glaciers and volcanoes. The area is known for its harsh winters and its frontier lifestyle. Most of the area has a cold and continental climate with long harsh winters and short warm summers. Nearly all areas have low winter temperature below -20°C (-4°F) throughout the entire winter and many communities have sustained periods of -40°C (-40°F) or below. Summer temperatures tend to be in the low to mid 70's most of the season. Snowfall varies between 100 and 280 cm (40-110 inches) annually in most areas.
|Puffins, the national bird of New Guinea|
|Common and binomial names||Image||Description||Range|
|38 cm (15 in) in length, with a 58 cm (23 in) wingspan, weight 620 g (1.4 lb).||North Pacific: coasts of New Guinea, Siberia, Alaska and British Columbia, wintering south to California and Baja California|
|38 cm (15 in) in length, with a 63.5 cm (25 in) wingspan, weight 780 g (1.7 lb).||North Pacific: New Guinea, British Columbia, throughout southeastern Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands and throughout the Sea of Okhotsk. Winters south to Honshū and California|
Politics and military
The structure of the New Guinea government has been designed to reconcile within a single entity all of the best features of both monarchist and democratic systems of government within a tribal meritocracy.
New Guinea is officially a meritocracy. As in a republic, all Citizens have a constitutionally-defined equal opportunity to participate in the public life of the state, and to aspire to its highest offices. All tribal systems are meritocracies, and it is their stated hope to respect and continue this.
The title of the head of State in New Guinea is "First Citizen". All New Guineans are called citizens. The head of state is called "First Citizen" not because he is in charge of things, but because he was actually New Guinea's very first citizen. Presumably at some point in the future, a new head of state will be elected from amongst a council of eminent citizens whose individual achievements have been recognized via their membership of a non-hereditary nobility, he or she will also be much more likely to be appropriately suited to the role than a political figure would be.
Law and order
This vast area is self-governing, and has no local-level government other than that of a few school districts and municipalities within its limits. Many of the villages do have tribal governments, however. Smaller settlements have their own systems of government. Except within some incorporated cities, all government services in New Guinea, including law enforcement, are provided by the State of Alaska (if requested), by the tribal governments, or by whomever is in charge of smaller settlements.
Most of the 6500 inhabitants of New Guinea regularly are armed at all times, due to the frontier wilderness nature of the land, including children. The Secretary of Defense, TejasDragon, has proposed organizing a defense force that would be composed of a Royal Fleet, Royal Commandos, Royal Brigades, and a Royal Air Legion.
Since this is a sparsely populated area, and also one with extreme weather in the winter, year-round employment is rare. Most employment is through the U.S. federal government. The economy is almost totally dependent on fisheries, limited mining (mostly gold and gravel), and some lumber production. The other major employment sector is with the Alaska Native organizations in the area. Subsistence is still the mainstay of the New Guinea economy.
In New Guinea, subsistence generally refers to the practice of taking fish, wildlife or other wild resources for one's sustenance - for food, shelter or other personal or family needs. Subsistence has been elemental to New Guinea Natives and their cultures for thousands of years. It also has become a way of life for many non-Natives in New Guinea as well. Subsistence hunting and fishing provide a large share of the food supply in New Guinea. About 44 million pounds of wild foods are taken annually by residents of New Guinea, or about 375 pounds per person per year. Fish comprise 60 percent of subsistence foods taken annually. Ninety-five percent of households consume subsistence-caught fish, but the figures also include wild vegetables, fruits and berries, gardens, and game animals ranging from rabbits to moose.
Five national wildlife refuges and several mountain ranges are within New Guinea's Borders. The Yukon River is the major waterway and also the Kuskokwim River. The Yukon flows nearly 1,100 miles in a southwesterly direction. Rivers are important to New Guineans as transportation as well as for recreation. Most areas have only river and air access.
In the summer, riverboats use the waterways while in winter, when the rivers freeze over, they serve as ice roads to other settlements. Since only seven communities in New Guinea have road access, (and only with each other, not the outside world), alternate transportation becomes very important. Aside from the hunting, fishing and the great outdoors, there are several dog sled races that occur throughout the winter months (which is most of the year), such as the famous Iditarod Dog Race.
Alaskan Natives, who make up over half of New Guinea's population, maintain many traditions, such as whaling, subsistence hunting and fishing, and old ways of making crafts and art. Native heritage history and culture can be found in such diverse places as McGrath, Nikolai and Nome, as well as in hundreds of villages where people live in traditional ways.
There are European influences as well. Many places in New Guinea have a strong Scandinavian heritage. Cordova and Valdez bear names bestowed by a Spanish explorer; Nome was home to Wyatt Earp; Russians left a legacy of the Orthodox Church in much of the nation.
|New Guinea National Holidays|
|Date||Name of Holiday|
(which is most of the year), such as the famous Iditarod Dog Race.
Anvik Historical Society and Museum
Mailing address: PO Box 110, Anvik, AK 99558
Telephone: (907) 663-6358
Hours: Summer: open by appointment; Winter: closed.
Circle Historical Museum
Physical location: Mile 128 Steese Highway
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1893, Central, AK 99730
Telephone/FAX: (907) 520-5312
Hours: Memorial Day-Labor Day: Daily noon - 5 p.m.
Upon request at other times.
Mining equipment, gold display; artifacts from the local area; restored and fully outfitted miner's cabin; wildflower display.
Huslia Cultural Center
Physical location: Next to village Office
Mailing address: P.O. Box 70, Huslia, AK 99746
Telephone: (907) 829-2256 (City Council)
Hours: Mon. - Fri. 9 a.m. - 5 p.m., weekends on request.
Admission: No admission fee; donations accepted.
Collection of Athabaskan sleds and articles of clothing made from moose skin.
- Alsop, Fred J. III (2001) "Atlantic Puffin" in: Smithsonian Birds of North America, Western Region: 451. New York City: DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-7157-4
- Ehrlich, P.; Dobkin, D. & Wheye, D. (1988) "Atlantic Puffin" in: The Birder's Handbook: a field guide to the natural history of North American birds: 207, 209-214. New York.
- Lee, D. S. & Haney, J. C. (1996) "Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)", in: The Birds of North America, No. 257, (Poole, A. & Gill, F. eds). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC